JPNLessonsOsaka Blog

Difference between particle “to” and “ya”

today14/8月/21

loyalty grammar

「と」も「や」も英語えいごの「and」みたいに使うつかことができます。名詞めいしと名詞をつなぐときに使います。

①テーブルのうえにりんごみかんがあります。

②テーブルの上にりんごみかんがあります。


Both と (to) and や ( ya ) connect nouns the way ” and ” in English does. Using と is for a list of all items, while や is for a sample of representative items. ” There are noun1 ‘ ya ‘ noun2 ” means “there are noun1, noun2, and other things.”


③テーブルの上にりんごやみかんなどがあります。


Sometimes you can add など ( nado ) after the last noun. など ( nado ) means etc., so you can emphasize that there are more items.


Pluralization

today01/8月/20

loyalty grammar

The Japanese language is not so strict about pluralization as English is.

Normally the word ねこ which means cat , can be a cat, some cats or cats in general. There are some specific words and suffixes to pluralize nouns, but when you are a beginner please don’t worry too much about whether they are singular or plural.


ねこが好きです。  I like cats ( in general )



あそこにねこがいます。can be “there is a cat over there” or “there are some cats over there”.



友だちと学校へ行きます。 can be ” I go to school with my friend ” or ” I go to school with my friends.”


Sentence ending particle “yo”

today23/6月/20

loyalty grammar

“Yo” indicates mild emphasis when the speaker is very sure of what she or he is saying.


このクッキーとてもおいしいですよ。

This cookie is delicious. ( so I recommend this cookie. )


It is often used to convey informarion which the listener doesn’t know.

パーティは何時なんじからですか。→ 3時からですよ。

What time does the party start? → It starts at 3:00. 


You can use “yo” to get someone’s attention.

ばんごはんですよ!  Dinner’s ready!!



“Yo” can also be used when the speaker is making a judgment, so be careful not to put too much stress on it, and do not overuse it; otherwise you might sound aggressive.


Sentence ending particle “ne”

today03/6月/20

loyalty grammar

” Ne ” indicates agreement, confirmation or sympathy.


暑いあつです。→ そうです 。 It is hot, isn’t it? → Yes, it is.( I think so, too )


レッスンは4月からです 。The lesson will start from April, am I right?


It can also soften a request.


また連絡れんらくしてください。また連絡して。 Please contact me again. (please keep in touch )


Sometimes the speaker will use ” ne ” in a monologue: in this case it indicates the speaker’s subjective reflection, trying to reach back into memories or thought.


日本にほんものなにがいちばんきですか。Among Japanese food, what do you like the best?

そうです…(Let me see…) おこのきが大好だいすきです。 I love Okonomiyaki.